This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement based courses
and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the
relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep.
166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week classes in Pilates, Taiji quan,
At beginning, middle, and end of the semester, participants completed measures of mindfulness, selfregulatory self-efficacy, mood, perceived stress and sleep quality.
Total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales increased overall. Greater changes in
mindfulness were directly related to better sleep quality at the end of the semester after adjusting for
sleep disturbance at the beginning. Tired Mood, Negative Arousal, Relaxed Mood, and Perceived
Stress mediated the effect of increased mindfulness on improved sleep.
Movement based courses can increase mindfulness. Increased mindfulness accounts for changes in
mood and perceived stress that explain, in part, improved sleep quality.
Keywords: mindfulness, mood, Pilates, sleep, stress, Taiji quan, GYROKINESIS®